Computer networking refers to interconnected computing devices that can exchange data and share resources with each other. These networked devices use a system of rules, called communications protocols, to transmit information over physical or wireless technologies. Computer networking, not to be confused with social networking, is the practice of interfacing two or more computing devices for the purpose of sharing data. Computer networks are built with a combination of hardware and software.
How does a computer network work?
Specialized devicesincluding switches, routers, and accesspointsformthe inspiration of computer networks. Switches join and assist to internally secure computers, printers, servers, and differentdevices to networks in homes or organizations. Access points are switches that joindevices to networks with outthe use of cables. Routers join networks to different networks and act as dispatchers. They analyzestatistics to be sentthroughout a network, choose the best routes for it, and send it on its way. Routers connectyour home and business to the world and helpprotectinformation from outsideprotection threats. While switches and routers range in several ways, one key difference is how they identifyenddevices. A Layer 2 transfer uniquely identifies a deviceby its “burned-in” MAC address. A Layer three router uniquely identifies a device‘s networkreference to a network-assigned IP address. Today, most switches includea fewlevel of routing functionality. MAC and IP addresses uniquely definedevices and network connections, respectively, in a network. A MAC address is a number assigned to a network interface card (NIC) by a device‘s manufacturer. An IP address is various assigned to a network connection.
Types of computer networks ?
- Local-area network (LAN)
A LAN is a collection of connected devices in one physical location, such as a home or an office. A LAN can be small or large, ranging from a home network with one user to a large enterprise network with thousands of users and devices. A LAN may include both wired and wireless devices.
Regardless of size, a LAN’s particular characteristic is that it connects devices that are in a single, limited area.
- Wide-area network (WAN)
A WAN extends over a large geographical area and connects individual users or multiple LANs. The Internet can be considered a WAN. Large organizations use WANs to connect their various sites, remote employees, suppliers, and data centers so they can run applications and access necessary data.
Physical connectivity in WANs can be achieved by leased lines, cellular connections, satellite links, and other means.
- Enterprise network
A network built for a large organization, typically called an enterprise, needs to fulfill exacting requirements. Since networking is crucial for any modern enterprise to function, enterprise networks must be highly available, scalable, and robust. These networks have tools that enable network engineers and operators to design, deploy, debug, and remediate them.
An enterprise may use both LANs and WANs across its campus, branches, and data centers.
Not only that there have lot of topologies. Some of them are Ring , Bus, Star Mesh and there has the most important network mode which is Network Protocol. So we discuss about them now.
Network protocols are the languages that computer devices use to communicate. The protocols that pc networks support provide any other way to define and group them. Networks can have multiple protocol and each can support specific applications. Protocols that are frequently used include TCP/IP, which is most common at the net and in home networks.
- Ring Topology
A ring topology is similar to a bus topology. It uses a single cable with the end nodes connected to each other so the signal can circle through the network to find its recipient. The signal will try several times to find its destination even when the network node is not working properly. A collapsed ring has a central node which is a hub, router or switch. The device has an internal ring topology and has places for cable to plug in. Every computer in the network has its own cable to plug into the device. In an office, this probably means having a cabling closet, where all computers are connected to the closet and the switch.
- Bus Topology
In a bus topology network connection, one cable connects the computer. The information for the last node on the network has to run through each connected computer. There is less cabling required, but if the cable breaks it means that none of the computers can reach the network.
- Star Topology
A central node connects a cable to each computer in the network in a star topology. Each computer in the network has an independent connection to the center of the network, and one connection breaking won’t affect the rest of the network. However, one downside is that many cables are required to form this kind of network.